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The country's national men's football team won the UEFA European Championship in , , and and the FIFA World Cup in , and is the first team ever to win three back-to-back major international tournaments.

Barcelona Femení has won a record 20 domestic trophies. Basketball , tennis , cycling, handball , futsal , motorcycling and, lately, Formula One also can boast of Spanish champions.

Today, Spain is a major world sports powerhouse, especially since the Summer Olympics and Paralympics that were hosted in Barcelona , which stimulated a great deal of interest in sports in the country.

The tourism industry has led to an improvement in sports infrastructure, especially for water sports , golf and skiing. In their respective regions, the traditional games of Basque pelota and Valencian pilota both are popular.

Public holidays celebrated in Spain include a mix of religious Roman Catholic , national and local observances. Each municipality is allowed to declare a maximum of 14 public holidays per year; up to nine of these are chosen by the national government and at least two are chosen locally.

There are many festivals and festivities in Spain. One of the most famous is San Fermín , in Pamplona. While its most famous event is the encierro , or the running of the bulls.

It has become one of the most internationally renowned fiestas in Spain, with over 1,, people attending every year. Other festivals include La Tomatina tomato festival in Buñol , Valencia , the carnivals in the Canary Islands , the Falles in Valencia or the Holy Week in Andalusia and Castile and León.

Contents move to sidebar hide. Article Talk. Read View source View history. Tools Tools. What links here Related changes Upload file Special pages Permanent link Page information Cite this page Get shortened URL Download QR code Wikidata item.

Download as PDF Printable version. In other projects. Wikimedia Commons Wikinews Wikiquote Wikivoyage. Country in southwestern Europe. For other uses, see Spain disambiguation and España disambiguation.

Reino de España Spanish 7 other names [a]. Show globe. Show map of Europe. Main article: History of Spain. Main article: Prehistoric Iberia.

Main articles: Hispania and Visigothic Kingdom. See also: Umayyad conquest of Hispania , Al-Andalus , and Reconquista. Main article: Spanish Empire. Main article: Contemporary history of Spain. Main articles: Midth-century Spain , Spanish American wars of independence , Spanish—American War , Anarchism in Spain , and Second Spanish Republic.

Main articles: Spanish Civil War , Spanish Revolution of , and Francoist Spain. Main articles: Spanish transition to democracy and Spanish society after the democratic transition.

Main article: Geography of Spain. Main article: List of islands of Spain. Main article: Climate of Spain. Main article: Climate change in Spain. Main article: Wildlife of Spain. Main article: Politics of Spain.

See also: Spanish Constitution of Felipe VI , King of Spain. Pedro Sánchez , Prime Minister of Spain. Main article: Foreign relations of Spain. Main article: Spanish Armed Forces. Main article: Human rights in Spain.

See also: LGBT rights in Spain. Main articles: History of the territorial organization of Spain and Political divisions of Spain. Main article: Autonomous communities of Spain. See also: Nationalities and regions of Spain. Community of Madrid.

La Rioja. Valencian Community. Castilla— La Mancha. Castile and León. Basque Country. Region of Murcia. Balearic Islands.

Canary Islands. Mediterranean Sea. Atlantic Ocean. Gibraltar UK. Main articles: Local government in Spain , Provinces of Spain , and Municipalities of Spain. Main article: Economy of Spain. Main article: Tourism in Spain. Main article: Energy in Spain. Main article: Science and technology in Spain.

Main article: Transport in Spain. Main article: Demographics of Spain. See also: List of Spanish autonomous communities by population. Main article: List of metropolitan areas in Spain. Largest cities or towns in Spain Instituto Nacional de Estadística Main article: Immigration to Spain.

Main article: Languages of Spain. Main article: Education in Spain. Main articles: Health care in Spain and Abortion in Spain. Main article: Religion in Spain.

Religious self-definition in Spain CIS survey; sample size: 3,; February [] Practicing Catholic Non-Practicing Catholic Believer in another religion 2.

Agnostic Atheist Did not answer 1. Main article: Culture of Spain. Main article: World Heritage Sites in Spain. See also: Castles in Spain and Cathedrals in Spain. Main articles: Spanish literature , Catalan literature , Galician literature , and Basque literature.

See also: Latin American literature , Royal Spanish Academy , and Instituto Cervantes. Main article: Spanish philosophy. Main article: Spanish art. Main article: Cinema of Spain. Main article: Spanish architecture.

Main article: Music of Spain. Main article: Spanish cuisine. Paella , a traditional Valencian dish []. Jamón ibérico is one of the most expensive hams.

Main article: Sport in Spain. Main articles: National Day of Spain , Public holidays in Spain , Fiestas of International Tourist Interest of Spain , and Fiestas of National Tourist Interest of Spain.

In each of these, Spain's conventional long name for international affairs in Spanish laws and the most used Spanish: Reino de España , pronounced: Spanish pronunciation: [ˈrejno ð e esˈpaɲa] is as follows: Aragonese : Reino d'Espanya , IPA: [ˈre̞j.

no ð̞ esˈpaɲ. ɟa] Asturian : Reinu d'España , IPA: [ˈre̞j. nu ð̞ esˈpa. Aragonese , Asturian , and Leonese have some degree of government recognition at the regional level. eu domain is also used, as it is shared with other European Union member states.

Also, the. cat domain is used in Catalonia ,. gal in Galicia and. eus in the Basque-Country autonomous regions. Instead, the terms España Spain , Estado español Spanish State and Nación española Spanish Nation are used throughout the document, sometimes interchangeably.

In , the Spanish Ministry of Foreign Affairs established that the denominations España Spain and Reino de España Kingdom of Spain are equally valid to designate Spain in international treaties. The latter term is widely used by the government in national and international affairs of all kinds, including foreign treaties as well as national official documents, and is therefore recognised as the conventional name by many international organisations.

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Although nowhere near as popular as Spain, we find Germany in second place. It is a country that also has a large number of prestigious universities spread out across many cities. The fact that Germany is an economic powerhouse makes it an attractive destination for those searching for employment after studying.

France, the United Kingdom and Italy appear in third, fourth and fifth position. The rest of countries rank behind at a considerable distance. What are the most popular Erasmus destinations?

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Spain is a parliamentary democracy and constitutional monarchy with a head of government - the prime minister - and a head of state - the monarch. A council of ministers is the executive branch and is presided over by the prime minister.

Spain is a unitary state, composed of 17 autonomous communities and 2 autonomous cities with varying degrees of autonomy. Location on the EU map. There are 59 members of the European Parliament from Spain. Find out who these MEPs are. In the Council of the EU , national ministers meet regularly to adopt EU laws and coordinate policies.

Council meetings are regularly attended by representatives from the Spanish government, depending on the policy area being addressed. The Council of the EU doesn't have a permanent, single-person president like e. the Commission or Parliament. Instead, its work is led by the country holding the Council presidency, which rotates every 6 months.

During these 6 months, ministers from that country's government chair and help determine the agenda of Council meetings in each policy area, and facilitate dialogue with the other EU institutions. Presidency of the Council of the EU.

Current presidency of the Council of the EU. Commission representation in Spain. Spain has 21 representatives on the European Economic and Social Committee. This advisory body — representing employers, workers and other interest groups — is consulted on proposed laws, to get a better idea of the possible changes to work and social situations in member countries.

Spain has 21 representatives on the European Committee of the Regions , the EU's assembly of regional and local representatives. This advisory body is consulted on proposed laws, to ensure these laws take account of the perspective from each region of the EU.

Spain also communicates with the EU institutions through its permanent representation in Brussels. As Spain's "embassy to the EU", its main task is to ensure that the country's interests and policies are pursued as effectively as possible in the EU.

Tourist information about Spain: art, culture, museums, monuments, beaches, cities, fiestas, routes, cuisine, natural spaces in Spain | newsinuk.info En este sentido, cabe señalar que nuestro país es el segundo del mundo con más ciudades Patrimonio de la Humanidad, el tercero en número de espacios naturales Madrid (España). This website uses its own and third-party cookies to maintain the session, offer a better user experience and obtain statistical data

España - Spain, a country on Europe’s Iberian Peninsula, includes 17 autonomous regions with diverse geography and cultures. Capital city Madrid is home to the Royal Palace and Prado museum, housing works by European masters. Segovia has a medieval castle Tourist information about Spain: art, culture, museums, monuments, beaches, cities, fiestas, routes, cuisine, natural spaces in Spain | newsinuk.info En este sentido, cabe señalar que nuestro país es el segundo del mundo con más ciudades Patrimonio de la Humanidad, el tercero en número de espacios naturales Madrid (España). This website uses its own and third-party cookies to maintain the session, offer a better user experience and obtain statistical data

Spain is filled with plans for you. Calendar Have you ever experienced the power of Easter Week? Nature 15 spectacular blossoms to experience up close. Routes A sample of Spain's most iconic road trips. Nature Cliffs with unique and dazzling views at your feet.

Nature Spas in Spain with original treatments: come and take care of yourself. Discover our destinations. MADRID The capital city with a thousand options. The capital of the Costa del Sol is reinventing itself. WHERE TO GO Discover our destinations.

Santiago de Compostela. Canary Islands. Balearic Islands. Search destinations See all the destinations. THINGS TO DO Not to be missed Choose the travel plan you like the most to make your stay in Spain unforgettable.

Routes The perfect destinations in Spain for visiting with a motorhome. Urban tourism If you are travelling with kids and want to explore urban spaces, these are the places for you.

Nature Discover the best time of year to visit Jerte Valley and its natural white colours. Nature Relax your mind by contemplating spectacular waterfalls. Go on some of the most incredible hiking routes in the country. GET INSPIRED Other ideas for your trip Do you want some more suggestions for your holidays?

Walks that make you fall in love with the historic gardens of Spain Read more. Routes 11 incredible trips for train lovers. Nature Original outdoor activities. Culture A journey through the most typical traditions of Valencia. Spain's 16th-century maritime supremacy was demonstrated by the victory over the Ottoman Empire at the Battle of Lepanto in and over Portugal at the Battle of Ponta Delgada in , and then after the setback of the Spanish Armada in , in a series of victories against England in the Anglo-Spanish War of — However, during the middle decades of the 17th century Spain's maritime power went into a long decline with mounting defeats against the Dutch Republic Battle of the Downs and then England in the Anglo-Spanish War of — ; by the s it was struggling to defend its overseas possessions from pirates and privateers.

The Protestant Reformation increased Spain's involvement in religiously charged wars, forcing ever-expanding military efforts across Europe and in the Mediterranean. These conflicts drained it of resources and undermined the economy generally.

Spain managed to hold on to most of the scattered Habsburg empire, and help the imperial forces of the Holy Roman Empire reverse a large part of the advances made by Protestant forces, but it was finally forced to recognise the separation of Portugal and the United Provinces Dutch Republic , and eventually suffered some serious military reverses to France in the latter stages of the immensely destructive, Europe-wide Thirty Years' War.

The decline culminated in a controversy over succession to the throne which consumed the first years of the 18th century. The War of the Spanish Succession was a wide-ranging international conflict combined with a civil war, and was to cost the kingdom its European possessions and its position as a leading European power.

During this war, a new dynasty originating in France, the Bourbons , was installed. The Crowns of Castile and Aragon had been long united only by the Monarchy and the common institution of the Inquisition's Holy Office. The 18th century saw a gradual recovery and an increase in prosperity through much of the empire.

The predominant economic policy was an interventionist one, and the State also pursued policies aiming towards infrastructure development as well as the abolition of internal customs and the reduction of export tariffs.

In , Spain went to war against the revolutionary new French Republic as a member of the first Coalition. The subsequent War of the Pyrenees polarised the country in a reaction against the gallicised elites and following defeat in the field, peace was made with France in at the Peace of Basel in which Spain lost control over two-thirds of the island of Hispaniola.

In , a secret treaty between Napoleon and the unpopular prime minister led to a new declaration of war against Britain and Portugal. French troops entered the country to invade Portugal but instead occupied Spain's major fortresses.

The Spanish king abdicated and a puppet kingdom satellite to the French Empire was installed with Joseph Bonaparte as king. The 2 May revolt was one of many uprisings across the country against the French occupation. During the war, in , a revolutionary body, the Cortes of Cádiz , was assembled to coordinate the effort against the Bonapartist regime and to prepare a constitution.

The French occupation of Mainland Spain created an opportunity for overseas criollo elites who resented the privilege towards Peninsular elites and demanded retroversion of the sovereignty to the people. Starting in the American colonies began a series of revolutions and declared independence, leading to the Spanish American wars of independence that put an end to the metropole's grip over the Spanish Main.

Attempts to re-assert control proved futile with opposition not only in the colonies but also in the Iberian peninsula and army revolts followed.

By the end of , the only American colonies Spain held were Cuba and Puerto Rico. The Napoleonic War left Spain economically ruined, deeply divided and politically unstable. In the s and s, Carlism a reactionary legitimist movement supportive of an alternative Bourbon branch , fought against the government forces supportive of Queen Isabella II 's dynastic rights in the Carlist Wars.

Government forces prevailed, but the conflict between progressives and moderates ended in a weak early constitutional period. The Glorious Revolution was followed by the — progressive Sexenio Democrático including the short-lived First Spanish Republic , which yielded to a stable monarchic period, the Restoration — In the late 19th century nationalist movements arose in the Philippines and Cuba.

In and the Cuban War of Independence and the Philippine Revolution broke out and eventually the United States became involved. The Spanish—American War was fought in the spring of and resulted in Spain losing the last of its once vast colonial empire outside of North Africa.

El Desastre the Disaster , as the war became known in Spain, gave added impetus to the Generation of ' Although the period around the turn of the century was one of increasing prosperity, the 20th century brought little social peace.

Spain played a minor part in the scramble for Africa. It remained neutral during World War I. The heavy losses suffered by the colonial troops in conflicts in northern Morocco against Riffians forces brought discredit to the government and undermined the monarchy.

Industrialisation, the development of railways and incipient capitalism developed in several areas of the country, particularly in Barcelona , as well as Labour movement and socialist and anarchist ideas.

The Barcelona Universal Exposition and the Barcelona Labour Congress are good examples of this. In , the Spanish Socialist Workers' Party was founded.

A trade union linked to this party, Unión General de Trabajadores , was founded in In the anarcho-sindicalist trend of the labour movement in Spain, Confederación Nacional del Trabajo was founded in and Federación Anarquista Ibérica in Catalanism and Vasquism, alongside other nationalisms and regionalisms in Spain, arose in that period: the Basque Nationalist Party formed in and Regionalist League of Catalonia in Political corruption and repression weakened the democratic system of the constitutional monarchy of a two-parties system.

The La Canadiense strike in led to the first law limiting the working day to eight hours. After a period of Crown-supported dictatorship from to , the first elections since , largely understood as a plebiscite on Monarchy, took place: the 12 April municipal elections. These gave a resounding victory to the Republican-Socialist candidacies in large cities and provincial capitals, with a majority of monarchist councilors in rural areas.

The king left the country and the proclamation of the Republic on 14 April ensued, with the formation of a provisional government. A constitution for the country was passed in October following the June Constituent general election , and a series of cabinets presided by Manuel Azaña supported by republican parties and the PSOE followed.

In the election held in the right triumphed and in , the left. During the Second Republic there was a great political and social upheaval, marked by a sharp radicalization of the left and the right.

Instances of political violence during this period included the burning of churches, the failed coup d'état led by José Sanjurjo , the Revolution of and numerous attacks against rival political leaders.

On the other hand, it is also during the Second Republic when important reforms to modernize the country were initiated: a democratic constitution, agrarian reform, restructuring of the army, political decentralization and women's right to vote. The Spanish Civil War broke out in on 17 and 18 July, part of the military carried out a coup d'état that triumphed in only part of the country.

The situation led to a civil war, in which the territory was divided into two zones: one under the authority of the Republican government , that counted on outside support from the Soviet Union and Mexico and from International Brigades , and the other controlled by the putschists the Nationalist or rebel faction , most critically supported by Nazi Germany and Fascist Italy.

The Republic was not supported by the Western powers due to the British-led policy of non-intervention. General Francisco Franco was sworn in as the supreme leader of the rebels on 1 October An uneasy relationship between the Republican government and the grassroots anarchists who had initiated a partial social revolution also ensued.

The civil war was viciously fought and there were many atrocities committed by all sides. The war claimed the lives of over , people and caused the flight of up to a half-million citizens from the country. Thousands were imprisoned after the civil war in Francoist concentration camps.

The regime remained nominally "neutral" for much of the Second World War, although it was sympathetic to the Axis and provided the Nazi Wehrmacht with Spanish volunteers in the Eastern Front. The only legal party under Franco's dictatorship was the Falange Española Tradicionalista y de las JONS FET y de las JONS , formed in upon the merging of the Fascist Falange Española de las JONS and the Carlist traditionalists and to which the rest of right-wing groups supporting the rebels also added.

The name of " Movimiento Nacional ", sometimes understood as a wider structure than the FET y de las JONS proper, largely imposed over the later's name in official documents along the s. After the war Spain was politically and economically isolated, and was kept out of the United Nations. This changed in , during the Cold War period, when it became strategically important for the US to establish a military presence on the Iberian Peninsula as a counter to any possible move by the Soviet Union into the Mediterranean basin.

US Cold War strategic priorities included the dissemination of American educational ideas to foster modernization and expansion. Franco's rule was also characterised by authoritarianism , promotion of a unitary national identity , National Catholicism , and discriminatory language policies.

In , a group of politicians involved in the opposition to Franco's regime inside the country and in exile met in the congress of the European Movement in Munich, where they made a resolution in favour of democracy.

With Franco's death in November , Juan Carlos succeeded to the position of King of Spain and head of state in accordance with the Francoist law. With the approval of the new Spanish Constitution of and the restoration of democracy , the State devolved much authority to the regions and created an internal organisation based on autonomous communities.

The Spanish Amnesty Law let people of Franco's regime continue inside institutions without consequences, even perpetrators of some crimes during transition to democracy like the Massacre of 3 March in Vitoria or Massacre of Atocha.

In the Basque Country, moderate Basque nationalism coexisted with a radical nationalist movement led by the armed organisation ETA until the latter's dissolution in May On 23 February , rebel elements among the security forces seized the Cortes in an attempt to impose a military-backed government.

King Juan Carlos took personal command of the military and successfully ordered the coup plotters, via national television, to surrender. During the s the democratic restoration made possible a growing open society.

New cultural movements based on freedom appeared, like La Movida Madrileña. In May Spain joined NATO , followed by a referendum after a strong social opposition.

That year the Spanish Socialist Workers Party PSOE came to power, the first left-wing government in 43 years. In Spain joined the European Economic Community , which later became the European Union.

The PSOE was replaced in government by the Partido Popular PP in after scandals around participation of the government of Felipe González in the Dirty war against ETA. On 1 January , Spain fully adopted the euro , and Spain experienced strong economic growth, well above the EU average during the early s.

However, well-publicised concerns issued by many economic commentators at the height of the boom warned that extraordinary property prices and a high foreign trade deficit were likely to lead to a painful economic collapse. In , the Prestige oil spill occurred with big ecological consequences along Spain's Atlantic coastline.

In José María Aznar supported US president George W. Bush in the Iraq War , and a strong movement against war rose in Spanish society.

In March a local Islamist terrorist group inspired by Al-Qaeda carried out the largest terrorist attack in Western European history when they killed people and wounded more than 1, others by bombing commuter trains in Madrid.

Because of the proximity of the Spanish general election , the issue of responsibility quickly became a political controversy, with the main competing parties PP and PSOE exchanging accusations over the handling of the incident. In the early s, the proportion of Spain's foreign born population increased rapidly during its economic boom but then declined due to the financial crisis.

Government talks with ETA happened, and the group announced its permanent cease of violence in The bursting of the Spanish property bubble in led to the —16 Spanish financial crisis. High levels of unemployment, cuts in government spending and corruption in Royal family and People's Party served as a backdrop to the —12 Spanish protests.

In , Mariano Rajoy 's conservative People's Party won the election with In October a Catalan independence referendum was held and the Catalan parliament voted to unilaterally declare independence from Spain to form a Catalan Republic [88] [89] on the day the Spanish Senate was discussing approving direct rule over Catalonia as called for by the Spanish Prime Minister.

In June , the Congress of Deputies passed a motion of no-confidence against Rajoy and replaced him with the PSOE leader Pedro Sánchez. At , km 2 , sq mi , Spain is the world's fifty-second largest country and Europe's fourth largest country. It is some 47, km 2 18, sq mi smaller than France.

Mount Teide Tenerife is the highest mountain peak in Spain and is the third largest volcano in the world from its base. Spain is a transcontinental country , having territory in both Europe and Africa.

Spain lies between latitudes 27° and 44° N , and longitudes 19° W and 5° E. On the west, Spain is bordered by Portugal ; on the south, it is bordered by Gibraltar and Morocco , through its exclaves in North Africa Ceuta and Melilla , and the peninsula of de Vélez de la Gomera. On the northeast, along the Pyrenees mountain range, it is bordered by France and Andorra.

Along the Pyrenees in Girona , a small exclave town called Llívia is surrounded by France. Extending to 1, km mi , the Portugal—Spain border is the longest uninterrupted border within the European Union. Spain also includes the Balearic Islands in the Mediterranean Sea , the Canary Islands in the Atlantic Ocean and a number of uninhabited islands on the Mediterranean side of the Strait of Gibraltar , known as plazas de soberanía "places of sovereignty", or territories under Spanish sovereignty , such as the Chafarinas Islands and Alhucemas.

The peninsula of de Vélez de la Gomera is also regarded as a plaza de soberanía. The isle of Alborán , located in the Mediterranean between Spain and North Africa, is also administered by Spain, specifically by the municipality of Almería , Andalusia.

The little Pheasant Island in the River Bidasoa is a Spanish-French condominium. There are 11 major islands in Spain, all of them having their own governing bodies Cabildos insulares in the Canaries, Consells insulars in Baleares.

These islands are specifically mentioned by the Spanish Constitution, when fixing its Senatorial representation Ibiza and Formentera are grouped, as they together form the Pityusic islands , part of the Balearic archipelago.

These islands include Tenerife , Gran Canaria , Lanzarote , Fuerteventura , La Palma , La Gomera and El Hierro in the Canarian archipelago and Mallorca , Ibiza , Menorca and Formentera in the Balearic archipelago.

Mainland Spain is a rather mountainous landmass, dominated by high plateaus and mountain chains. After the Pyrenees, the main mountain ranges are the Cordillera Cantábrica Cantabrian Range , Sistema Ibérico Iberian System , Sistema Central Central System , Montes de Toledo , Sierra Morena and the Sistema Bético Baetic System whose highest peak, the 3,metre-high 11,foot Mulhacén , located in Sierra Nevada , is the highest elevation in the Iberian Peninsula.

The highest point in Spain is the Teide , a 3,metre 12, ft active volcano in the Canary Islands. The Meseta Central often translated as 'Inner Plateau' is a vast plateau in the heart of peninsular Spain split in two by the Sistema Central.

There are several major rivers in Spain such as the Tagus Tajo , Ebro , Guadiana , Douro Duero , Guadalquivir , Júcar , Segura , Turia and Minho Miño.

Alluvial plains are found along the coast, the largest of which is that of the Guadalquivir in Andalusia. Three main climatic zones can be separated, according to geographical situation and orographic conditions: [].

Low-lying areas of the Canary Islands average above Spain is one of the countries that is most affected by the climate crisis in Europe. Spain could see 2 °C 3. Due to declining rainfall Spain's droughts which are already one of the worst in Europe will be ten times worse compared to The WHO estimated that 4, people died in due to heat related stress in Spain.

Spain's per capita emissions was 4. Spain was in responsible for 0. The fauna presents a wide diversity that is due in large part to the geographical position of the Iberian peninsula between the Atlantic and the Mediterranean and between Africa and Eurasia , and the great diversity of habitats and biotopes , the result of a considerable variety of climates and well differentiated regions.

The vegetation of Spain is varied due to several factors including the diversity of the terrain, the climate and latitude. Spain includes different phytogeographic regions, each with its own floral characteristics resulting largely from the interaction of climate, topography, soil type and fire, and biotic factors.

The country had a Forest Landscape Integrity Index mean score of 4. Within the European territory, Spain has the largest number of plant species 7, vascular plants of all European countries.

In Spain there are The constitutional history of Spain dates back to the constitution of In June , Spain's new King Juan Carlos dismissed Carlos Arias Navarro and appointed the reformer Adolfo Suárez as Prime Minister. As a result, Spain is now composed of 17 autonomous communities and two autonomous cities with varying degrees of autonomy thanks to its Constitution, which nevertheless explicitly states the indivisible unity of the Spanish nation.

The Spanish administration approved the Gender Equality Act in aimed at furthering equality between genders in Spanish political and economic life. Spain is a constitutional monarchy , with a hereditary monarch and a bicameral parliament , the Cortes Generales English: Spanish Parliament , lit.

The executive branch consists of a Council of Ministers presided over by the Prime Minister, who is nominated as candidate by the monarch after holding consultations with representatives from the different parliamentary groups, voted in by the members of the lower house during an investiture session and then formally appointed by the monarch.

Spain is organisationally structured as a so-called Estado de las Autonomías "State of Autonomies" ; it is one of the most decentralised countries in Europe, along with Switzerland, Germany and Belgium; [] for example, all autonomous communities have their own elected parliaments, governments, public administrations , budgets, and resources.

Health and education systems among others are managed by the Spanish communities, and in addition, the Basque Country and Navarre also manage their own public finances based on foral provisions.

After the return of democracy following the death of Franco in , Spain's foreign policy priorities were to break out of the diplomatic isolation of the Franco years and expand diplomatic relations , enter the European Community , and define security relations with the West.

As a member of NATO since , Spain has established itself as a participant in multilateral international security activities. Spain's EU membership represents an important part of its foreign policy.

Even on many international issues beyond western Europe, Spain prefers to coordinate its efforts with its EU partners through the European political co-operation mechanisms. Spain has maintained its special relations with Hispanic America and the Philippines.

Its policy emphasises the concept of an Ibero-American community, essentially the renewal of the concept of " Hispanidad " or " Hispanismo " , as it is often referred to in English, which has sought to link the Iberian Peninsula with Hispanic America through language, commerce, history and culture.

It is fundamentally "based on shared values and the recovery of democracy. The country is involved in a number of territorial disputes. Spain claims Gibraltar , an Overseas Territory of the United Kingdom , in the southernmost part of the Iberian Peninsula.

Morocco claims the Spanish cities of Ceuta and Melilla and the plazas de soberanía islets off the northern coast of Africa. Portugal does not recognise Spain's sovereignty over the territory of Olivenza. The Spanish Armed Forces are divided into three branches: Army Ejército de Tierra ; Navy Armada ; and Air and Space Force Ejército del Aire y del Espacio.

The armed forces of Spain are known as the Spanish Armed Forces Fuerzas Armadas Españolas. Their commander-in-chief is the King of Spain, Felipe VI. The fourth military authority of the State is the Chief of the Defence Staff JEMAD.

The Spanish armed forces are a professional force with a strength in of , active personnel and 4, reserve personnel. The country also has the 77, strong Civil Guard which comes under the control of the Ministry of defense in times of a national emergency.

The Spanish defense budget is 5. The increase comes because of security concerns in the country. The Spanish Constitution of "protect all Spaniards and all the peoples of Spain in the exercise of human rights, their cultures and traditions, languages and institutions".

According to Amnesty International AI , government investigations of alleged police abuses are often lengthy and punishments were light. Spain provides one of the highest degrees of liberty in the world for its LGBT community.

Spain's autonomous communities are the first level administrative divisions of the country. They were created after the current constitution came into effect in in recognition of the right to self-government of the " nationalities and regions of Spain ".

This territorial organisation, based on devolution , is known in Spain as the "State of Autonomies". The basic institutional law of each autonomous community is the Statute of Autonomy. The Statutes of Autonomy establish the name of the community according to its historical and contemporary identity, the limits of its territories, the name and organisation of the institutions of government and the rights they enjoy according to the constitution.

Catalonia, Galicia and the Basque Country, which identified themselves as nationalities , were granted self-government through a rapid process. Andalusia also identified itself as a nationality in its first Statute of Autonomy, even though it followed the longer process stipulated in the constitution for the rest of the country.

Progressively, other communities in revisions to their Statutes of Autonomy have also taken that denomination in accordance with their historical and modern identities, such as the Valencian Community, [] the Canary Islands, [] the Balearic Islands, [] and Aragon. The autonomous communities have wide legislative and executive autonomy, with their own parliaments and governments.

The distribution of powers may be different for every community, as laid out in their Statutes of Autonomy, since devolution was intended to be asymmetrical. Only two communities—the Basque Country and Navarre—have full fiscal autonomy. Beyond fiscal autonomy, the nationalities —Andalusia, the Basque Country, Catalonia, and Galicia—were devolved more powers than the rest of the communities, among them the ability of the regional president to dissolve the parliament and call for elections at any time.

In addition, the Basque Country, Catalonia and Navarre have police corps of their own: Ertzaintza , Mossos d'Esquadra and the Policía Foral respectively. Other communities have more limited forces or none at all, like the Policía Autónoma Andaluza [] in Andalusia or the BESCAM in Madrid.

Autonomous communities are divided into provinces , which served as their territorial building blocks. In turn, provinces are divided into municipalities. The existence of both the provinces and the municipalities is guaranteed and protected by the constitution, not necessarily by the Statutes of Autonomy themselves.

Municipalities are granted autonomy to manage their internal affairs, and provinces are the territorial divisions designed to carry out the activities of the State. The current provincial division structure is based—with minor changes—on the territorial division by Javier de Burgos , and in all, the Spanish territory is divided into 50 provinces.

The communities of Asturias, Cantabria, La Rioja, the Balearic Islands, Madrid, Murcia and Navarre are the only communities that comprise a single province, which is coextensive with the community itself.

In these cases, the administrative institutions of the province are replaced by the governmental institutions of the community.

Spain's capitalist mixed economy is the 14th largest worldwide and the 4th largest in the European Union , as well as the eurozone 's 4th largest.

The centre-right government of former prime minister José María Aznar worked successfully to gain admission to the group of countries launching the euro in Unemployment stood at Since the s some Spanish companies have gained multinational status, often expanding their activities in culturally close Latin America.

Spain is the second biggest foreign investor there, after the United States. Spanish companies have also expanded into Asia, especially China and India. The automotive industry in Spain is one of the largest employers in the country. In Spain was the 8th largest automobile producer country in the world [] and still in the 2nd largest car manufacturer in Europe after Germany.

In , Spain was the second most visited country in the world, recording 82 million tourists which marked the fifth consecutive year of record-beating numbers. Spain's geographic location, popular coastlines, diverse landscapes, historical legacy, vibrant culture, and excellent infrastructure have made the country's international tourist industry among the largest in the world.

Castile and Leon is the Spanish leader in rural tourism linked to its environmental and architectural heritage. In Spain became the solar power world leader when it overtook the United States with a massive power station plant called La Florida , near Alvarado, Badajoz. Non-renewable energy sources used in Spain are nuclear 8 operative reactors , gas , coal , and oil.

The Consejo Superior de Investigaciones Científicas CSIC is the leading public agency dedicated to scientific research in the country. It ranked as the 5th top governmental scientific institution worldwide and 32nd overall in the SCImago Institutions Rankings.

The Spanish road system is mainly centralised, with six highways connecting Madrid to the Basque Country , Catalonia , Valencia , West Andalusia , Extremadura and Galicia.

Additionally, there are highways along the Atlantic Ferrol to Vigo , Cantabrian Oviedo to San Sebastián and Mediterranean Girona to Cádiz coasts.

Spain aims to put one million electric cars on the road by as part of the government's plan to save energy and boost energy efficiency. Spain has the most extensive high-speed rail network in Europe, and the second-most extensive in the world after China.

There are 47 public airports in Spain. The busiest one is the airport of Madrid Barajas , with 50 million passengers in , being the world's 15th busiest airport , as well as the European Union's fourth busiest.

The airport of Barcelona El Prat is also important, with 35 million passengers in , being the world's 31st-busiest airport. Other main airports are located in Majorca , Málaga , Las Palmas Gran Canaria , and Alicante. In , Spain had a population of 48 people, an increase of 0. With the exception of the region surrounding the capital, Madrid, the most populated areas lie around the coast.

In , the average total fertility rate TFR across Spain was 1. In , Spain granted citizenship to 84, persons, mostly to people from Ecuador, Colombia and Morocco.

Smaller numbers of immigrants from several Sub-Saharan countries have recently been settling in Spain. There are also sizeable numbers of Asian immigrants, most of whom are of Middle Eastern, South Asian and Chinese origin.

The single largest group of immigrants are European; represented by large numbers of Romanians, Britons, Germans , French and others. According to the official Spanish statistics INE there were 5.

According to residence permit data for , more than , were Romanian, about , were Moroccan , approximately , were British, and , were Ecuadorian. There are more than , migrants from Sub-Saharan Africa living in Spain, principally Senegaleses and Nigerians.

This sudden and ongoing inflow of immigrants, particularly those arriving illegally by sea, has caused noticeable social tension.

Within the EU, Spain had the 2nd highest immigration rate in percentage terms after Cyprus , but by a great margin, the highest in absolute numbers, up to Another statistically significant factor is the large number of residents of EU origin typically retiring to Spain's Mediterranean coast.

In fact, Spain was Europe's largest absorber of migrants from to , with its immigrant population more than doubling as 2. In , the government instituted a "Plan of Voluntary Return" which encouraged unemployed immigrants from outside the EU to return to their home countries and receive several incentives, including the right to keep their unemployment benefits and transfer whatever they contributed to the Spanish Social Security.

In alone, more than half a million people left Spain. Spain is a multilingual state. The territoriality created by the form of co-officiality codified in the Constitution creates an asymmetry, in which Spanish speakers' rights apply to the entire territory whereas vis-à-vis the rest of co-official languages, their speakers' rights only apply in their territories.

Besides Spanish, other territorialized languages include Aragonese , Aranese , Astur-Leonese , Basque , Ceutan Arabic Darija , Catalan , Galician , Portuguese and Tamazight , to which the Romani Caló and the sign languages may add up.

Some of the most spoken foreign languages used by the immigrant communities include Moroccan Arabic , Romanian and English. State education in Spain is free and compulsory from the age of six to sixteen. The current education system is regulated by the educational law, LOE Ley Orgánica de Educación , or Fundamental Law for the Education.

The levels of education are preschool education, primary education, [] secondary education [] and post education.

The Programme for International Student Assessment coordinated by the OECD currently ranks the overall knowledge and skills of Spanish year-olds as significantly below the OECD average of in reading literacy, mathematics, and science.

The health care system of Spain Spanish National Health System is considered one of the best in the world, in 7th position in the ranking elaborated by the World Health Organization. Religious self-definition in Spain CIS survey; sample size: 3,; February []. Roman Catholicism , which has a long history in Spain, remains the dominant religion.

Although it no longer has official status by law, in all public schools in Spain students have to choose either a religion or ethics class.

Catholicism is the religion most commonly taught, although the teaching of Islam, [] Judaism, [] and evangelical Christianity [] is also recognised in law. The Spanish constitution enshrines secularism in governance, as well as freedom of religion or belief for all, saying that no religion should have a "state character", while allowing for the state to "cooperate" with religious groups.

Protestant churches have about 1,, members. The Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints has approximately 46, adherents in congregations.

The vast majority was composed of immigrants and descendants originating from the Maghreb especially Morocco and other African countries. Judaism was practically non-existent in Spain from the expulsion until the 19th century, when Jews were again permitted to enter the country.

Currently there are around 62, Jews in Spain, or 0. Spain is a Western country and one of the major Latin countries of Europe, and a cultural superpower. The centuries-long colonial era globalised Spanish language and culture, with Spain also absorbing the cultural and commercial products of its diverse empire.

Spain has 49 World Heritage Sites. These include the landscape of Monte Perdido in the Pyrenees , which is shared with France, the Prehistoric Rock Art Sites of the Côa Valley and Siega Verde , which is shared with Portugal, the Heritage of Mercury , shared with Slovenia and the Ancient and Primeval Beech Forests , shared with other countries of Europe.

Some early examples of vernacular Romance-based literature include short snippets of Mozarabic Romance such as refrains sprinkled in Arabic and Hebrew texts. Early Medieval literature in Christian Iberia was written in Latin , which remained as the standard literary language up until the midth century, whereas Ibero-Romance vernaculars and Basque were spoken.

In the scope of lyric poetry Castilian co-existed alongside Galician-Portuguese across the Crown of Castile up until the 16th century.

Genres such as Mester de Juglaría and Mester de Clerecía were cultivated. Promoted by the monarchs in the late Middle Ages and even codified in the late 15th century, Castilian thought to be widespread known as 'Spanish' from the 16th century on progressively became the language of the elites in the Iberian Peninsula, which ushered in a Golden era of Castilian literature in the 16th and 17th centuries, also in the science domain, eclipsing Galician and Catalan.

The famous Don Quijote de La Mancha by Miguel de Cervantes was written in this time. Other writers from the period are: Francisco de Quevedo , Lope de Vega , Calderón de la Barca or Tirso de Molina.

During the Enlightenment authors included Leandro Fernández de Moratín , Benito Jerónimo Feijóo , Gaspar Melchor de Jovellanos or Leandro Fernández de Moratín. Steps of Spanish Romantic literature initially a rebellion against French classicism have been traced back to the last quarter of the 18th century, even if the movement had its heyday between and , waning thereafter.

The waning of Romantic literature was followed by the development of Spanish Realism , which offered depictions of contemporary life and society 'as they were', rather than romanticised or stylised presentations.

Premio Planeta de Novela and Miguel de Cervantes Prize are the two main awards in Spanish literature. The construct pertaining a distinctive Spanish philosophical thought has been variously approached by academia, either by diachronically tracing its development throughout the centuries from the Roman conquest of Hispania on with early representatives such as Seneca , Trajan , Lucan , or Martial ; by pinpointing its origins to the late 19th century associated to the Generation of 98 ; or simply by outright denying its existence.

Artists from Spain have been highly influential in the development of various European and American artistic movements. Due to historical, geographical and generational diversity, Spanish art has known a great number of influences. The Mediterranean heritage with Greco-Roman and some Moorish influences in Spain, especially in Andalusia , is still evident today.

European influences include Italy, Germany and France, especially during the Renaissance, Spanish Baroque and Neoclassical periods. There are many other autochthonous styles such as the Pre-Romanesque art and architecture , Herrerian architecture or the Isabelline Gothic.

During the Golden Age painters working in Spain included El Greco , José de Ribera , Bartolomé Esteban Murillo and Francisco Zurbarán.

Also in the Baroque period, Diego Velázquez created some of the most famous Spanish portraits, such as Las Meninas and Las Hilanderas. Francisco Goya painted during a historical period that includes the Spanish Independence War , the fights between liberals and absolutists, and the rise of contemporary nations-states.

Joaquín Sorolla is a well-known modern impressionist painter and there are many important Spanish painters belonging to the modernism art movement, including Pablo Picasso , Salvador Dalí , Juan Gris and Joan Miró.

The Plateresque style extended from beginnings of the 16th century until the last third of the century and its stylistic influence pervaded the works of all great Spanish artists of the time. Alonso Berruguete Valladolid School is called the "Prince of Spanish sculpture".

His main works were the upper stalls of the choir of the Cathedral of Toledo , the tomb of Cardinal Tavera in the same Cathedral, and the altarpiece of the Visitation in the church of Santa Úrsula in the same locality.

Other notable sculptors were Bartolomé Ordóñez , Diego de Siloé , Juan de Juni and Damián Forment. There were two Schools: the Seville School , to which Juan Martínez Montañés belonged, whose most celebrated works are the Crucifix in the Cathedral of Seville, another in Vergara, and a Saint John; and the Granada School , to which Alonso Cano belonged, to whom an Immaculate Conception and a Virgin of Rosary, are attributed.

Other notable Andalusian Baroque sculptors were Pedro de Mena , Pedro Roldán and his daughter Luisa Roldán , Juan de Mesa and Pedro Duque Cornejo. In the 20th century the most important Spanish sculptors were Julio González , Pablo Gargallo , Eduardo Chillida , and Pablo Serrano. After the first projection of a cinematographer in Spain by , cinema developed in the following years, with Barcelona becoming the largest production hub in the country as well as a major European hub on the eve of the World War I.

Spanish cinema has achieved major international success including Oscars for recent films such as Pan's Labyrinth and Volver. Distinct exploitation genres that flourished in the second half of the 20th century include the Fantaterror [ es ] , the cine quinqui and the so-called destape [ es ] films.

As of , the festivals of San Sebastián and Málaga are ranked among the top cultural initiatives in the country. Earth and gypsum are very common materials of the traditional vernacular architecture in Spain particularly in the East of the country, where most of the deposits of gypsum are located.

Fine examples of Islamicate architecture , belonging to the Western Islamic tradition , were built in the Middle Ages in places such as Córdoba , Seville , or Granada. Similarly to the Maghreb, stucco decoration in Al-Andalus became an architectural stylemark in the high Middle Ages.

Simultaneously, the Christian kingdoms also developed their own styles; developing a pre-Romanesque style when for a while isolated from contemporary mainstream European architectural influences during the earlier Middle Ages, they later integrated the Romanesque and Gothic streams.

There was then an extraordinary flourishing of the Gothic style that resulted in numerous instances being built throughout the entire territory. The so-called Mudéjar style came to designate works by Muslims, Christians and Jews in lands conquered from Muslims.

The arrival of Modernism produced much of the architecture of the 20th century. An influential style centred in Barcelona , known as modernisme , produced a number of important architects, of which Gaudí is one.

The International style was led by groups like GATEPAC. Spain is currently experiencing a revolution in contemporary architecture and Spanish architects like Rafael Moneo , Santiago Calatrava , Ricardo Bofill as well as many others have gained worldwide renown. Spanish music is often considered abroad to be synonymous with flamenco , a West Andalusian musical genre, which, contrary to popular belief, is not widespread outside that region.

Various regional styles of folk music abound. Pop, rock, hip hop and heavy metal are also popular. In the field of classical music, Spain has produced a number of noted composers such as Isaac Albéniz , Manuel de Falla and Enrique Granados and singers and performers such as Plácido Domingo , José Carreras , Montserrat Caballé , Alicia de Larrocha , Alfredo Kraus , Pablo Casals , Ricardo Viñes , José Iturbi , Pablo de Sarasate , Jordi Savall and Teresa Berganza.

In Spain there are over forty professional orchestras, including the Orquestra Simfònica de Barcelona , Orquesta Nacional de España and the Orquesta Sinfónica de Madrid.

Major opera houses include the Teatro Real , the Gran Teatre del Liceu , Teatro Arriaga and the El Palau de les Arts Reina Sofía.

Thousands of music fans also travel to Spain each year for internationally recognised summer music festivals Sónar which features pop and techno acts, and Benicàssim which tends to feature alternative rock and dance acts. The most popular traditional musical instrument , the guitar, originated in Spain.

Spanish cuisine consists of a great variety of dishes which stem from differences in geography, culture and climate. It is heavily influenced by seafood available from the waters that surround the country, and reflects the country's deep Mediterranean roots. Spain's extensive history with many cultural influences has led to a unique cuisine.

In particular, three main divisions are easily identified:. Mediterranean Spain — coastal regions, from Catalonia to Andalusia — heavy use of seafood, such as pescaíto frito fried fish ; cold soups like gazpacho ; and many rice-based dishes like paella from Valencia [] and arròs negre black rice from Catalonia.

Inner Spain — Castile — hot, thick soups such as the bread and garlic-based Castilian soup , along with substantial stews such as cocido madrileño. Food is traditionally preserved by salting, such as Spanish ham , or immersed in olive oil , such as Manchego cheese.

Atlantic Spain — the Northern coast, including Asturian , Basque , Cantabrian and Galician cuisine — vegetable and fish-based stews like caldo gallego and marmitako. Also, the lightly cured lacón ham. The best known cuisine of the northern countries often rely on ocean seafood, as in the Basque-style cod , albacore or anchovy or the Galician octopus-based polbo á feira and shellfish dishes.

While varieties of football have been played in Spain as far back as Roman times, sport in Spain has been dominated by football since the early 20th century. Real Madrid CF and FC Barcelona are two of the most successful football clubs in the world.

The country's national men's football team won the UEFA European Championship in , , and and the FIFA World Cup in , and is the first team ever to win three back-to-back major international tournaments.

Barcelona Femení has won a record 20 domestic trophies. Basketball , tennis , cycling, handball , futsal , motorcycling and, lately, Formula One also can boast of Spanish champions. Today, Spain is a major world sports powerhouse, especially since the Summer Olympics and Paralympics that were hosted in Barcelona , which stimulated a great deal of interest in sports in the country.

The tourism industry has led to an improvement in sports infrastructure, especially for water sports , golf and skiing. In their respective regions, the traditional games of Basque pelota and Valencian pilota both are popular.

Public holidays celebrated in Spain include a mix of religious Roman Catholic , national and local observances. Each municipality is allowed to declare a maximum of 14 public holidays per year; up to nine of these are chosen by the national government and at least two are chosen locally.

There are many festivals and festivities in Spain. One of the most famous is San Fermín , in Pamplona. While its most famous event is the encierro , or the running of the bulls. It has become one of the most internationally renowned fiestas in Spain, with over 1,, people attending every year.

Other festivals include La Tomatina tomato festival in Buñol , Valencia , the carnivals in the Canary Islands , the Falles in Valencia or the Holy Week in Andalusia and Castile and León. Contents move to sidebar hide. Article Talk.

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Country in southwestern Europe. For other uses, see Spain disambiguation and España disambiguation. Reino de España Spanish 7 other names [a]. Show globe. Show map of Europe. Main article: History of Spain. Main article: Prehistoric Iberia. Main articles: Hispania and Visigothic Kingdom. See also: Umayyad conquest of Hispania , Al-Andalus , and Reconquista.

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Main article: Spanish architecture. Main article: Music of Spain. Main article: Spanish cuisine. Paella , a traditional Valencian dish []. Jamón ibérico is one of the most expensive hams.

Main article: Sport in Spain. Main articles: National Day of Spain , Public holidays in Spain , Fiestas of International Tourist Interest of Spain , and Fiestas of National Tourist Interest of Spain.

In each of these, Spain's conventional long name for international affairs in Spanish laws and the most used Spanish: Reino de España , pronounced: Spanish pronunciation: [ˈrejno ð e esˈpaɲa] is as follows: Aragonese : Reino d'Espanya , IPA: [ˈre̞j.

no ð̞ esˈpaɲ. ɟa] Asturian : Reinu d'España , IPA: [ˈre̞j. nu ð̞ esˈpa. Aragonese , Asturian , and Leonese have some degree of government recognition at the regional level. eu domain is also used, as it is shared with other European Union member states.

Also, the. cat domain is used in Catalonia ,. gal in Galicia and. eus in the Basque-Country autonomous regions. Instead, the terms España Spain , Estado español Spanish State and Nación española Spanish Nation are used throughout the document, sometimes interchangeably.

In , the Spanish Ministry of Foreign Affairs established that the denominations España Spain and Reino de España Kingdom of Spain are equally valid to designate Spain in international treaties. The latter term is widely used by the government in national and international affairs of all kinds, including foreign treaties as well as national official documents, and is therefore recognised as the conventional name by many international organisations.

Boletín Oficial del Estado núm. Archived PDF from the original on 24 September Archived from the original on 25 March Retrieved 26 April Datos provisionales" PDF.

es in Spanish. Instituto Nacional de Estadística. Archived PDF from the original on 8 June Retrieved 20 October The question was "¿Cómo se define Ud. Instituto Nacional de Estadística Spain.

Retrieved 14 April Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development OECD. Archived from the original on 24 March Retrieved 11 October Últimos datos". Retrieved 23 February Spain ". International Monetary Fund. Archived from the original on 15 October Retrieved 10 October Archived from the original on 20 March Retrieved 7 August United Nations Development Programme.

Retrieved 13 March Encyclopedia Britannica. Archived from the original on 8 August Retrieved 17 March Journal of World History. JSTOR Archived from the original on 25 November Retrieved 27 November Archived from the original on 11 September Retrieved 8 June This is thanks to universities such as those in Barcelona, Valencia, Madrid, Granada and Salamanca.

Although nowhere near as popular as Spain, we find Germany in second place. It is a country that also has a large number of prestigious universities spread out across many cities.

The fact that Germany is an economic powerhouse makes it an attractive destination for those searching for employment after studying. France, the United Kingdom and Italy appear in third, fourth and fifth position. The rest of countries rank behind at a considerable distance. What are the most popular Erasmus destinations?

Archived from the original on 13 May The Wall Street Journal. Archived from the original on 20 September Archived from the original on 13 November La etimología de España; ¿tierra de conejos?

A History of Spain from the Earliest Times to the Death of Ferdinand the Catholic, Volume 1. Catholic Encyclopedia. New York: Robert Appleton Company.

Understanding Animal Research. Archived from the original on 31 October Retrieved 31 October A system of ancient and mediæval geography for the use of schools and colleges.

Archived from the original on 21 October Retrieved 9 August Javier La Sierra de Atapuerca y el Valle del Arlanzón. Patrones de asentamiento prehistóricos. Editorial Dossoles.

Burgos, Spain. ISBN La Prehistoria Reciente del entorno de la Sierra de Atapuerca Burgos, España. British Archaeological Reports Oxford, U. Quaternary International. Bibcode : QuInt. doi : The radiocarbon datations give the following dates: 32, and 29, BP.

Bibcode : Sci ISSN PMID S2CID Archived from the original on 12 September Retrieved 17 November The Library of Iberian Resources Online. Archived from the original on 8 October Chapter 1 — Hispania". Library of Congress Country Series.

Archived from the original on 22 September Actas del II Congreso Andaluz deEstudios Clásicos. Sociedad Española de Estudios Clásicos.

Archived PDF from the original on 5 July

Video

EMIGRAR A ESPAÑA DESDE ARGENTINA - 3 AÑOS EN MADRID 🇦🇷🇪🇸 Para los niveles Competencias Literarias se Españs creado los grupos de Competencias Literarias autónomas. España se sitúa Epsaña en el suroeste de Europa, si bien también tiene España en el norte de África. Reino de España. Archived from the original on 7 July In fact, Spain was Europe's largest absorber of migrants from towith its immigrant population more than doubling as 2. Walks that make you fall in love with the historic gardens of Spain Read more. Spain's official tourism website

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